• 讲座报名
  • 最新活动
  • 电子微券
  • 精彩专题
  • 报名须知
孔学堂图书馆
[报名须知]

报名方式:
1.微信报名:用户需要在微信搜索“孔学堂”,或手动输入微信号:gyconfucianism,添加并关注“孔学堂”微信公众号,点击底部菜单“讲座报名”即可进入报名系统(适用于高校学生听课修学分及市民网络报名);
2.现场报名:市民可前往贵阳孔学堂文化传播中心推广部活动科进行现场报名【详细】

Confucian Academy(The March of 2020)

2020-07-15 10:33 来源:Confucius Academy

CONFUCIAN ACADEMY

Chinese Thought 

and Culture Review

 

VOLUME 7 ·Number 1 ·March 2020

CONTENTS

Academic Forum

4   Spiritual Humanism: Its Meaning and Expansion

------ Yang Guorong

13   On Zhu Daosheng’s Buddhist Ecological Thought  

------ Chen Hongbing

24   The Journey of Guizhou Self-Consciousness: From Consciousness of Geographical Space to Consciousness of Humanistic Values     

------ Zhou Zhixiang

Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism

32  Zhang Zai’s Neo-Confucian Guiding Principle and the Positioning of His Material Force Theory

------Lin Lechang

40   Zhang Taiyan on Neo-Confucianism: A Review with a Focus on the Difference between the Cheng–Zhu and Lu–Wang Schools

------ Zhang Tianjie                   

49   Ming–Qing Ritual-Based Society under the Influence of Zhu Xi’s Doctrine of Ritual: The Dimension of Outer Kingliness in Neo-Confucianism

------ Liu Yiping                                        

Confucian Studies

61   Nationalism and Spirit of Freedom: Basic Characteristics of Carsun Chang’s New Confucian Thought

------ Chen Hanming

69   Early Modern Guangdong Academies and Their Academic Ethos: A Case Study of Zhu Ciqi’s Early Education Experience

------ Li Chen

76  Serving Heaven and Emulating the Ancients: Western Han Confucians’ Movement to Reform Regulations and Improve Governance

-------Jiang Xiren

Book Reviews                     

85   QianHai: The Modern Value of Traditional Chinese Culture

------ Guo Qiyong and Liao Xiaowei

------Shu Dagang

89  Xu Qi: The Imprint of Thoughts: Philosophical Thinking on Cultural Issues                                                                                                                                

------ Ding Weixiang

Main Articles Abstract

Spiritual Humanism: Its Meaning and Expansion

Yang GuorongTT

Abstract: Spiritual humanism defines “humanism” as “spiritual,” in that it both emphasizes the spiritual dimensions of humanism, and manifests an integrated conceptual system, the latter of which can be expanded into four aspects: self, community, nature, and the dao of Heaven. Specifically, “spiritual” refers primarily to the pursuit of transcendence, and thus in this dimension, spiritual humanism implies religiosity. At the same time however, spiritual humanism also includes the connotation of “humanism.” Thus, on the one hand, it differs from dissolving the self and going into reclusion, while on the other, it avoids the dualism caused by conflicts between the reality of this world and the transcendence of another world. Furthermore, as a combination of “humanism” and “spirit,” spiritual humanism limits the spiritual orientation with humanistic concern and thus avoids the transcendent path, as well as directing the humanistic orientation by spiritual pursuit and avoiding secularism degenerating into utilitarianism and the materialization of humanity. As for the development of spiritual humanism, what matters most is to introduce the vision of “affairs.” There is an intrinsic correlation between the pursuit of spiritual humanism and the expansion of the “affairs” of reality. To view the world from the perspective of “affairs” is not only the prerequisite for extending the meaning of spiritual humanism, but also provides a potential space for deepening its meaning.

Keywords: spirit, humanism, viewing the world through affairs

On Zhu Daosheng’s Buddhist Ecological Thought

Chen Hongbing

Abstract: Zhu Daosheng’s Li-Ti theory is based on the doctrine of emptiness and dependent origination, with more focus on the point that all dharmas arise in dependence upon other dharmas. His thought that all phenomena are interconnected, process-based, and integrated as a whole is consistent with the worldview of contemporary ecological philosophy. His exposition of the view that every being is equal insofar as “all sentient beings possess Buddha-nature,” helps establish the idea of respect for life. The holistic contemplation of emptiness and dependent origination through praj?āpāramitā as expressed in Daosheng’s thought of the “attainment of Buddha hood by sudden enlightenment” has the edifying implication of exhorting us to form the view of ecological holism today. Furthermore, his exposition of the doctrine that “when the mind is pure, the land is also pure” highlights the decisive significance of purifying people’s mind for the construction of the pure land. And it also affirms that the pure land is co-created by Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and sentient beings, helping us realize that it is necessary to overcome our greed and transform our way of thinking when creating an ideal ecological environment. Daosheng’s Buddhist ecological thought was a product of the early sinicization of Buddhism, but played a key role in guiding the subsequent development of Chinese Buddhist ecological thought.

Keywords: (Zhu) Daosheng, ecological thought, emptiness and dependent origination, philosophy of Buddha-nature, attainment of Buddha hood by sudden enlightenment

The Journey of Guizhou Self-Consciousness: From Consciousness of Geographical Space to Consciousness of Humanistic Values

Zhou Zhixiang

Abstract: Over more than six hundred years of reflection and awakening, Guizhou self-consciousness has developed a profound sense of self-awareness, ranging from the shaping and awakening of geographic consciousness in the Ming dynasty, the Qian people’s sense of identity when they compiled local annals in the Qing dynasty, the Qian people’s cultural consciousness when they established the Association for Qian Learning in the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China, and the cultural subjectivity entailed in the contemporary slogan “Colorful Guizhou,” to its recent humanistic values as advocated in the “humanistic spirit of Guizhou.” Such a humanistic spirit reveals the spiritual essence and value of Guizhou’s regional culture, thus providing spiritual guidance and methodology for constructing the discipline of Qian Learning.

Keywords: Qian Learning, Guizhou awareness, humanistic spirit of Guizhou, disciplinary construction, self-consciousness

Zhang Zai’s Neo-Confucian Guiding Principle and the Positioning of His Material Force Theory

Lin Lechang

Abstract: Academic studies of Zhang Zai’s material force theory once tended to put the theory at the top of his series of concepts, as the topmost category of his Neo-Confucian philosophy. Thus, Zhang’s philosophy was characterized by material force as the substance or as a theory pertaining to materialism. This represents a qualitative perspective in the study of his philosophy. Nowadays it is necessary to explore Zhang’s philosophy from a new perspective oriented to his guiding principle. This paper examines various understandings of Zhang’s Neo-Confucian guiding principle on the basis of corroborating documents, provides a holistic interpretation of the significance of his guiding principle, and finally proposes, from the guiding principle-oriented perspective, a new positioning of Zhang’s material force theory.

Keywords: Zhang Zai, positioning of the material force theory, material force as the substance, qualitative perspective, guiding principle-oriented perspective

Zhang Taiyan on Neo-Confucianism:

A Review with a Focus on the Difference between the Cheng–Zhu and Lu–Wang Schools

Zhang Tianjie

Abstract: Zhang Taiyan’s academic career can be divided into two periods. In his early years he seldom discussed the Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming dynasties, about which he rarely gave positive comments, owing perhaps to his educational background in Old Text classical studies and the influence of Buddhism and Daoism. In his later years, however, he made a relatively more positive assessment of the Neo-Confucians, including the Cheng brothers, Zhu Xi, and Wang Yangming. Regarding the divergences between the Cheng–Zhu and Lu–Wang schools, he seemed to be in favor of Lu Jiuyuan and Wang Yangming, approving of Wang’s Final Conclusions of Zhu Xi in His Twilight Years, endorsing the Old Text of the Great Learning, and criticizing Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi’s theories of gewu and xinmin in their exegesis. Nonetheless, he never let this factional difference interfere with his academic pursuits. His attempt to reconstruct the “New Four Books” system, his arguments on the difference between Zhu Xi and Wang Yangming, and his own interpretation of the Great Learning, all point to “self-cultivation and personal discipline” during a national crisis.

Keywords: Zhang Taiyan, Zhu Xi studies, Yangming studies, comparison between Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan, views on Confucianism

Ming–Qing Ritual-Based Society under the Influence of Zhu Xi’s Doctrine of Ritual: The Dimension of Outer Kingliness in Neo-Confucianis

Liu Yiping

Abstract: Pre-modern Chinese ritual education was modeled on Zhu Xi’s doctrine of ritual. Zhu’s doctrine was a practical system oriented toward ordinary people, and it shaped Ming and Qing ritual-based society along two different tracks: social functioning and personal practice. Zhu’s Familial Rites, the Revised Lü’s Village Conventions, and variations on these texts constructed a whole set of social etiquette and norms for conduct, serving as the principal basis for the organization of ordinary society. His Primary Learning and What Children Must Know occupied the highest position of etiquette and self-cultivation in elementary education, promoting the integrative development of education of both the elite and ordinary folk. The key role played by Zhu’s doctrine of ritual in both organizing society and educating the populace represents the extension of the idea of Confucian “outer kingliness” from the political to the social dimension. This finding poses a challenge to such popular opinions that Song–Ming Neo-Confucianism valued inner more than outer cultivation, and that there was a marked inward turn of Chinese culture in the Song dynasty.

Keywords: Zhu Xi, doctrine of ritual, ritual-based society, internalization

Nationalism and Spirit of Freedom:

Basic Characteristics of Carsun Chang’s New Confucian Thought

Chen Hanming

Abstract: Among the modern New Confucians, Carsun Chang is primarily characterized by his nationalism and spirit of freedom and in particular by the organic combination of the two in his thought, including his political thought. Although Chang the political activist eventually gave up his failing political endeavors to focus on scholarship in both Chinese and Western learning, he produced a style of New Confucian thought that remains valuable and worthwhile.

Keywords: New Confucianism, Carsun Chang, nationalism, spirit of freedom, political thought, Confucian tradition

Early Modern Guangdong Academies and Their Academic Ethos: A Case Study of

Zhu Ciqi’s Early Education Experience

Li Chen

Abstract: In the early Qing dynasty, the academies in Guangdong were still under the influence of Baisha xinxue and Yangming xinxue. During the Kangxi and Yongzheng period, when Cheng–Zhu lixue became the orthodoxy, the Xuehai Academy was established by govern or Ruan Yuan, and Han Learning was introduced, creating a new situation where Han Learning prevailed over Song Learning. In his early youth, Zhu Ciqi studied in the Yangcheng Academy and the Yuehua Academy under the tutorship of Chen Jichang, a Cheng–Zhu scholar, and Xie Lansheng, a Han–Song Learning scholar. He also enrolled at the Xuehai Academy as one of the first batch of students under the guidance of Ruan Yuan and Zeng Zhao, two Han Learning scholars. As a result of this educational background, Zhu Ciqi was well-versed in both Han and Song Learning, and his intellectual transitions reflect the complicated connections between the academic ethos and the zeitgeist in the early modern period.

Keywords: Qing dynasty scholarship, academies, Han and Song Learning, Zhu Ciqi

Serving Heaven and Emulating the Ancients: Western Han Confucians’ Movement to Reform Regulations and Improve Governance

Jiang Xiren

Abstract: In the early years of the Western Han, Confucian scholars, led by Jia Yi and Dong Zhongshu, launched a movement of reforming and improving governance, flying the banner of serving Heaven and emulating the ancients. Due to their different orientations, the Confucians could be divided into two groups: the “serving-Heaven” group, who liked to discuss portents; and the “emulating-the-ancients” group, who advocated establishing the ritual system. In the later years of the Western Han, Wang Mang exploited the first group’s theory of portents to usurp the throne and founded the Xin dynasty, and then put into practice the second group’s theory of establishing ritual, pushing the movement to its climax. However, Wang Mang’s government overused portents, and mechanically established ritual, all of these factors contributed to the quick collapse of the Xin dynasty, and the proclamation of the failure of the movement to restore the ancient system. Nevertheless, the movement is of profound historical significance to Chinese politics of later generations.

Keywords: serving Heaven, emulating the ancients, Western Han Confucians, reforming regulations, improving governance, portents, ritual system

作者:

编辑:肖珊