and Culture Review
VOLUME 6 ·Number 4 ·December 2019
4 From Mutual Criticism to Divergent Discourses: Tracing the Early Evolution and Interactions of Confucianism and Daoism
------ Ding Weixiang
14 Dealing with Regicides: Junzi Ci in the Gongyang Commenatry
------ Zeng Yi
25 Reexamining the Charms and Confusions of Dark Learning Thought: Issues Relating to Wang Bi, Tang Yongtong, and Dark Learning
------ Li Lanfen
33 Tracing the Sources for the Editions of Chen Xianzhang’s Anthology
------ Sun Qihua
40 Self-Cultivation and Serious Work in the Confucian Choice of Value: The Shift in Zhu Xi’s Theory of Equilibrium and Harmony
------ Yan Yue
49 A Modern Reflection on the Logic Underlying ‘Unity of Knowledge and Action’ and ‘Conviction by Examining Motivation’
------ Gong Jianping
60 ‘The Desirable is Good’: The Approval of Desire in Wang Yangming’s Followers and Its Intellectual Significance
------ Liu Zengguang
Overseas Confucian Studies
69 Lee Sik’s Acceptance of Confucianism during the Korean Joseon Period and Its Significance
------ Wang Cheng
77 A Semantic Study of Yuefu in the Yuan Dynasty
------ Guo Li and Sun Mengmeng
86 Logic in Encyclopaedias and the Typology of Knowledge of the Late Qing Dynasty
------ Gan Jin
94 Xu Qi: The Imprint of Thoughts: Philosophical Thinking onCultural Issues
------ Ding Weixiang
Main Articles Abstract
From Mutual Criticism to Divergent Discourses: Tracing the Early Evolution and Interactions of Confucianism and Daoism
Abstract: Confucianism and Daoism were two of the earliest schools of thought in ancient China, whose divergence represents the deepest split in Chinese intellectual and cultural history. Starting from Confucius’s visit to Laozi, the founders of the two schools had shown their markedly different concerns. The debate between Yang Zhu and Zisi, with Yang preaching “for oneself” while Zisi advocated the “mandate of Heaven,” led the two schools further apart along different paths. Later, Mencius and Zhuangzi, respectively, gave brilliant expression to the tenets of Confucianism and Daoism with concepts such as “moral nature” and “innate nature,” which laid the foundation for their respective intellectual metaphysics. The disparate perspectives and focuses of spiritual concerns of the two schools actually reflect the boundaries of humanity in real life. They complement each other, as the innate nature and moral nature of mankind are inseparable from and interdependent on each other.
Dealing With Regicides: Junzi Ci in the Gongyang Commentary
Abstract: Traditional Confucians took the sovereign–minister relationship as a pivotal principle for ancient state politics and thus regarded regicide as the most unpardonable crime. The Gongyang Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Annals, however, differentiated among three levels of responsibility for dealing with regicide, namely, the Son of Heaven, hegemons or dukes, and ministers and commoners. In the late Zhou dynasty, when the ritual and music system was collapsing, ministers and commoners constituted the main force punishing the regicides. However, as this paper explains, the Gongyang Commentary pragmatically employed junzi ci (verdicts of superior man) to exonerate ministers and commoners who failed to quell rebellions. In addition, this paper analyzes related discussions by Confucians from the Song onward and reveals inherent tensions in Confucianism.
Re examining the Charms and Confusions of Dark Learning Thought: Issues Relating to Wang Bi, Tang Yongtong, and Dark Learning
Abstract: Wang Bi’s Dark Learning thought and Tang Yongtong’s modern studies of Dark Learning have both played a very important role in Chinese intellectual history. Dark Learning thought is related to modern philosophy. If examined against the development of the Confucian tradition, what role did this kind of thought actually play? This paper explores the dual role of Wang Bi’s Dark Learning and Tang Yongtong’s studies of Dark Learning. It focuses on the dual role of charms and confusions in three respects: first, the relationship between Dark Learning and the development of Confucianism; second, the dual role of Wang Bi’s Dark Learning thought in the development of Confucianism; and third, an analysis of Tang Yongtong’s studies of Wei–Jin Dark Learning, reflecting the repercussions of Wang Bi’s thought in modern times.
Tracing the Sources for the Editions of Chen Xianzhang’s Anthology
Abstract: The compilation of Chen Xianzhang’s anthology commenced in the years when Chen was still alive. Chen’s poetry and writings had been printed successively more than ten times in the Ming and Qing dynasties, with many revisions and supplements made. The extant editions of his anthology fall into five categories, among which editions under the Wang category and the Biyu Tower category are the most complete and mutually complementary. Research on these edition categories will conduce to a better understanding of the backgrounds against which different versions were printed. Furthermore, this study presents a clear reflection on the present situation of the organization of Chen’s anthology, especially a corroboration of the flaws in Collection of Chen Xianzhang as published by Zhonghua Book Company.
Self-Cultivation and Serious Work in the Confucian Choice of Value: The Shift in Zhu Xi’s Theory of Equilibrium and Harmony
Abstract: Zhu Xi shifted from his old theory of equilibrium and harmony to a new one probably because self-cultivation was not duly valued. His new theory of equilibrium and harmony put more emphasis on the effort of self-cultivation, and according to him, the basic way lies in accumulating, progressing gradually, and making sustained effort, so as to foster “the demeanor of Superior Man” and inherit the ancient culture. Confucianism is always oriented toward history and culture, characterized by a pursuit of external propriety and internal virtue via cultivating oneself and being serious. Therefore, Zhu’s purpose of rectifying his old theory of equilibrium and harmony was to keep consistent with the traditional Confucian choice of value.
A Modern Reflection on the Logic Underlying ‘Unity of Knowledge and Action’ and ‘Conviction by Examining Motivation’
Abstract: The vague definition of “knowledge” in Confucian philosophy results in obscure interpretations of Wang Yangming’s doctrine of “unity of knowledge and action.” It is with regard to moral consciousness and moral conduct that Wang proposed this doctrine. If one fails to distinguish between moral consciousness and knowledge in a general sense, there will inevitably be misinterpretations of the relationship between knowledge and action. Though “conviction by examining motivation” and “unity of knowledge and action” originated in different discourses, as far as their logic goes they are related internally with each other. The meaning of intuitive knowledge, as a sense of right and wrong, is twofold, and ethics should be taken as the key principle for judging right and wrong and distinguishing good and evil. Therefore, in practice, the unity of knowledge and action means moral consciousness and moral conduct are one under the guidance of the ethical principle. If the positive significance of cognition to morality is acknowledged, then there exists some tension between knowledge and action. An accurate understanding of the relationship between knowledge and action means much to a rational grasp of their respective statuses.
‘The Desirable is Good’: The Approval of Desire in Wang Yangming’s Followers and Its Intellectual Significance
Abstract: Some of Wang Yangming’s followers began to approve of desire and emphasize the unity of human nature and desire. With the belief that desire cannot be eliminated, they even argued that, according to the orthodox Confucian tradition, “the learning of ancient sages begins with desire and ends with desire,” and thus refuted the views of “having no desire” and “eliminating desire.” As can be seen, Wang Yangming scholars construed human nature from the perspective of life as a whole, as opposed to the Cheng–Zhu School’s theory of human nature. Moreover, they probed the cause and motivation of moral values, and disclosed that people’s likes and dislikes, as a value experience, are common to all, serving as the basis of the ideal society where “the self and others form one body.” In view of the development of Confucianism, the Qian–Jia Confucian scholars expounded on human nature, feelings, and sincerity from the perspective of likes and dislikes. Their theories are consistent with the Yangming School which emphasizes sincerity and approaches innate knowledge from the perspective of people’s likes and dislikes.
Lee Sik’s Acceptance of Confucianism during the Korean Joseon Period and Its Significance
Abstract: Lee Sik’s exegesis of the Analects was distinctive in the Korean Joseon period for his emphasis on moral philosophy, his copious citations for persuasiveness with expressive imagery, as well as his elaboration of the subject to admonish the monarch after his ceremonial lectures on Confucian classics. All this showed his devotion as a dutiful royal official. Lee Sik was an advocate of Neo-Confucianism, especially the doctrine of Zhu Xi, into which he gained profound insight. Not only did he accept Zhu Xi’s theory across the board, but also he was able to apply it in real life. Many of Lee Sik’s works, such as “Family Admonitions,” “Manners of Sacrifice,” “Ceremonies of Sacrifice,” and “Precepts as Heritage,” which had borrowed from Zhu Xi’s ideas, became the codes of domestic discipline for his family that were passed down through generations and made their influence felt in Korean society far and wide.
A Semantic Study of Yuefu in the Yuan Dynasty
Guo Li？and Sun Mengmeng
Abstract: The term yuefu gained an enriched meaning over time. Up to the Yuan dynasty, yuefu was used to refer to the ritual and music institution of the imperial court, yuefu poems, and quzici, as well as to sanqu and zaju. The first three meanings were inherited from previous eras, among which its reference to quzici had gradually faded away by the end of the Yuan. Yuefu was first used to refer to sanqu in the Zhiyuan period of Emperor Kublai Khan’s reign, and its meaning was expanded to zaju in the middle Yuan. In addition, as the previously refined Yuan literature was becoming increasing popular, yuefu used in reference to Yuan plays still retained a demand for refinement in sound and diction.
Logic in Encyclopaedias and the Typology of Knowledge of the Late Qing Dynasty
Abstract: Encyclopaedias have often been ignored in the investigations on modern terminologies, concepts, and the typology of knowledge of logic. Based on the New Encyclopaedia of Common Knowledge compiled by Huang Ren, this article examines the naming of mingxue (logic) and the establishment of mingxue in the encyclopaedia in an attempt to clarify how the discipline of logic was shaped in the new system of knowledge of the late Qing dynasty.