and Culture Review
VOLUME 4 ·Number 3 ·September 2017
4 Hagok Jeong Je-du’s Theory on Liangzhi Ti-Yong and Its Comparison with Wang Yangming’s Theory of Ti-Yong
·Special Theme: Contemporary Confucian Studies·
20 The Latest Trends in International Confucian Studies
22 Reexamining Open Structures in Confucian Teachings
36 The World of Datong and Cosmopolitanism: The Relationship between Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism
48 Constancy and Variability: The Essential Spirit and Modern Development of Confucianism
·Horizon of Sinology·
60 Dialogue between the Yijing and the Bible: French Jesuit Joachim Bouvet’s Interpretation of the ‘Meng Hexagram’
John Tsz Pang Lai
67 The Root-Branch Theory and Wang Bi’s Philosophical Contribution
79 Zhang Zai’s ‘Inquiring into the Inscrutable and Understanding the Transformation’
87 On the Traditional Culture of Filial Piety
104 The Seminal Principles of Human Roles: Five Elements and Five Constants
114 Zhang Dai’s Buddhist Interpretations of the Four Books: Focusing on Encounter with the Four Books
Main articles Abstract
Hagok Jeong Je-du’s Theory on Liangzhi Ti-Yong
and Its Comparison with Wang Yangming’s Theory of Ti-Yong
Abstract: Wang Yangming and Hagok Jeong Je-du each established the theoretical profoundness of Chinese and Korean Yangming thoughts, whose defining characteristics are illuminated best by the theory of liangzhi ti-yong. Through a close analysis of Hagok’s Liangzhi Ti-Yong diagram and a subsequent comparison to Wang Yangming’s theory of liangzhi ti-yong, this paper highlights the underlying connotations and particular features of Hagok’s theory of liangzhi ti-yong. In so doing, this paper also responds to contemporary Korean scholar Choi Jae-mok’s thesis by stating that Hagok’s theory still corresponds to Wang Yangming’s concept of liangzhi and his coinage of the phrase ti yong yi yuan. Simply put, the uniqueness of Hagok’s theory of liangzhi ti-yong lies in the way his diagram depicts progressive movement outward in three layers from a single concentric circle to transform the two-dimensional, dichotomous, and static “xin tong xing-qing” framework of Korean
Neo-Confucianism into a three-dimensional, dynamic framework by replacing xin with liangzhi to create “liangzhi tong xing-qing,” thereby demonstrating the unity of substance and function. In this way, Jeong Je-du not only responds to the distinctive “Four–Seven” debate of Korean Neo-Confucianism but also effectively corrects what he sees as the shortcoming of Chinese Yangming thought, namely overrating human feelings and desires.
Keywords: Jeong Je-du (Hagok), Liangzhi (Ti-Yong) diagram, Wang Yangming, ti yong yi yuan (substance and function coming from the same source), ren-qing zong-yu
Lin Yueh-hui is research fellow of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy of Academia Sinica.
Reexamining Open Structures in Confucian Teachings
Abstract: Confucian teachings can be divided into open, closed, and intermediate structures. Analyses of such structures make the extensive and profound ideas of Confucius more understandable. The closed structure is dominant and actual, while the open structure is recessive and latent. The inertness, stagnation, and conservativeness of Confucian teachings have been widely acknowledged, whereas its dynamic, restless, and even revolutionary spirit have often been ignored. Against such stereotypical views, this paper furthers the exploration of Confucian teachings, contending that Confucius understands nature, socio-politics, and human life from a changeable and developmental perspective. It emphasizes eight open structures—balanced relationships, society, selection of talents, practice, knowledge, reason, truth, and justice—and the role such structures can play in the development of modern society.
Keywords: Confucian teachings, threefold structure, open structures
Ding Zijiang, PhD, is professor of the Department of Philosophy at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, USA, Editor-in-Chief of Journal of East-West Thought, and Secretary-General of IAES.
The World of Datong and Cosmopolitanism:
The Relationship between Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism
Abstract: The Chinese Confucian thought of datong (grand union) provides an Eastern and universal version of cosmopolitanism. The positive core of Chinese nationalism lies in the fact that it internally implements benevolent governance and promotes the coexistence and harmonious development of different ethnic groups while externally applying the kingly Way and moderately incorporating cosmopolitanism. In constructing a connection between nationalism and cosmopolitanism, the Confucian “gradated love” serves as a principle. The Chinese form of mild nationalism can guard against the dictatorial concept and practice of “total unification” within China and oppose emanative conceptions and implementations of “global empire.”
Keywords: datong, cosmopolitanism, nationalism, human feelings
Liu Yuedi is a research fellow from the Institute of Philosophy of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
Constancy and Variability: The Essential Spirit
and Modern Development of Confucianism
Abstract: The development of Confucianism in modern society needs to address the constancy and variability of Confucianism. What is constant is the faith in the Way of Heaven and the Confucian ethical obligation. Such faith includes the belief in the ceaseless production of the Way of Heaven and the unity of heaven and human, which reflects Chinese people’s attitudes toward the world and life. Ethical obligation refers to the moral responsibilities that humans should take on in social relations. What is variable in Confucianism concerns the Confucian approach to democracy and science. Although they are imported from the West, they can be incorporated into Confucian ideas in a way that conforms to the essential spirit of Confucianism and the Confucian ideal of perfection.
Keywords: ceaseless production, unity of heaven and human, ethical obligation, modern development
Zhu Guanglei is associate professor of the Department of Philosophy at Soochow University.
Dialogue between the Yijing and the Bible:
French Jesuit Joachim Bouvet’s Interpretation of the ‘Meng Hexagram’
Abstract: In the early Qing dynasty, the French Jesuit missionary Joachim Bouvet came to China and began a study of the Yijing. Since he attempted to discover a prophecy of a Messiah in the Chinese classic and claimed that ancient Chinese sages had received God’s revelation, he was regarded as a leading Figurist. He wrote over a dozen treatises on the Yijing and interpreted its hexagrams in light of Christian theology, thus undertaking an in-depth dialogue between the Yijing and the Bible. Focusing on Bouvet’s “Treatise on the Yijing,” this article explores Bouvet’s views on the Yijing and analyzes his novel interpretation of the “Meng Hexagram,” into which he read almost the entire history of Christian salvation.
Keywords: Joachim Bouvet, Society of Jesus, Figurism, Yijing, Bible, Sinology
John Tsz Pang Lai, PhD, is associate professor of the Department of Cultural and Religious Studies at Chinese University of Hong Kong.
The Root-Branch Theory and Wang Bi’s Philosophical Contribution
Abstract: Confronting the confusion of the three-root theory that prevailed in the Han dynasty, Wang Bi put forward a single-root theory—the root-branch theory. He believed that self-so nature is the root, and the teaching of names, such as benevolence and righteousness, derives from self-so nature and should be taken as branches. Wang Bi advocated “venerating the root to uphold the branches.” That is, human should not only value their self-so nature but also acknowledge the teaching of names. It is necessary to maintain a critical attitude toward the teaching of names to highlight the fundamental status of self-so nature. Wang Bi’s one-root theory led people’s understanding of entities toward ultimate being, though his philosophy was empirical, not speculative.
Keywords: Wang Bi, root, branches, self-so, teaching of names
Shen Shunfu is professor and doctoral supervisor in the Advanced Institute for Confucian Studies at Shandong University.
Zhang Zai’s ‘Inquiring into the Inscrutable
and Understanding the Transformation’
Abstract: “Inquiring into the inscrutable and understanding the transformation” represents a basic proposition of Zhang Zai’s philosophy. This proposition includes two aspects: people’s understanding of objective things and their ideological state. The inscrutable (shen) and the transformation (hua) not only contain the secret of the universe and human life but also indicate the level of people’s cultivation of cognition, affection, and volition in their consciousness. This unified conception of understanding and cultivation is characteristic of Zhang’s philosophy and also an important feature of Chinese philosophy.
Keywords: the inscrutable (shen), transformation (hua), forming human nature, Zhang Zai
Ning Xinchang is professor in the School of Business & Law at Foshan University.
On the Traditional Culture of Filial Piety
Abstract: Filial piety is an important issue in Confucianism and an essential element of Chinese culture. Its fundamental requirement is to support and wait upon one’s parents; its essence is to respect and love them; its highlight is to be able to admonish them; and its ultimate service is to carefully attend to their funeral rites and honor them with due sacrifices. Filial piety is inextricably bound up with benevolence, rites, loyalty, and parental love. Examining these relationships is beneficial to better understanding the connotation of filial piety in Chinese culture.
Keywords: Confucianism, filial piety, respect
Xia Hai, doctor of laws, is a scholar of Chinese culture.
The Seminal Principles of Human Roles:
Five Elements and Five Constants
Abstract: The Five Elements are the vital category that connects the Ways of Heaven, Earth, and the human in ancient China. The Five Constants are the seminal principles and laws that link together human roles. Dong Zhongshu replaced the Five Elements of the Way of the human (benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and sageliness) with the Way of Five Constants (benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness). He also demonstrated the Three Guides and Five Constants in ethics and morality from the viewpoint of basic moral doctrine, and established the ethical system of Chinese feudal society. Reflecting on the evolutions of and the commentaries on the Five Constants in history, the author argues that the Five Constants should be subjected to rational survey in a matter-of-fact manner and to “filtering something out through the old” in a timely way.
Keywords: Five Elements, Five Constants, Five Ethical Roles, evolution, commentary
Peng Hua, PhD in history, is professor of the Institute of Classical Literature Studies at Sichuan University, and resident scholar at Guiyang Confucius Academy.
Zhang Dai’s Buddhist Interpretations
of the Four Books: Focusing on Encounter with the Four Books
Detailed Abstract: Zhang Dai张岱(1597–ca. 1685, also known as Tao’an) was the son of a government official, born in Shanyin or present-day Shaoxing City of Zhejiang Province. He was a versatile man with interests ranging from various pastimes to academic pursuits, such as sightseeing, painting, writing of poems, historical compilations, appreciation of classics, and practice of meditation. Upon the collapse of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), he was so grieved that he retreated to the mountains along the Yanxi River, where he led a thrifty and simple life with disheveled hair, and died as a Ming adherent.
Keywords: Zhang Dai, Encounter with the Four Books, Buddhist interpretations
Han Huanzhong, PhD, is professor of the Institute of Religious Research at Soochow University.